Basic Mathematics

Maths is a subject which we have been learning since our childhood. It is one of the most important subjects that have direct or indirect applications in our daily lives. In basic mathematics, we learn fundamental concepts such as numbers, arithmetic operations, maths tables, counting, etc. 

In our nursery classes, we have been taught the fundamentals of maths, i.e., numbers. Counting numbers such as 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10, etc., are the basics by which we learn to count anything. Later, we have come across with varieties of numbers such as natural numbers, whole numbers, even and odd numbers, etc., that have their own significance.

Basic Mathematical Operations

Other mathematical concepts rank higher than the fundamental concepts. Here, we learn about different types of numbers, multiples, factors, LCM and HCF, fractions, etc. But, the basic maths is all about the four major mathematical operations: 

  • Addition
  • Subtraction
  • Multiplication
  • Division


Addition is done, when we need to add two or more numbers. Addition means finding the sum of two or more integers. It is represented by the symbol “+”.

Example: Addition of 3 and 4 = 3+4 = 7

So clearly, we are adding here two numbers, 3 and 4 to get the sum equal to 7.


By subtraction, we mean subtracting a number from another number. It is a method to find the difference between the two numbers. The opposite method of addition is subtraction. We use minus symbol (-) to denote subtraction between two numbers.

Example: Subtract 10 from 45, i.e.,

45 – 10 = 35

In case of subtraction, we have to be very careful of the minus sign. If minus is present before any larger number, then we will get a negative result. For example, 10 – 45 = -35.


The process of finding the product of two numbers is called multiplication. It is represented by a cross symbol ‘×’. Suppose a number A is multiplied by another number B, then it is represented as A × B and it is said as A times B.

Example: 3 multiplied by 4 equal to: 3 × 4 = 12

Here, multiplication tables come into picture. These tables are very necessary to be learned before we solve multiplication problems.


Dividing a number into an equal number of parts, is called division. It is a method of distributing a thing into equal parts. Division is an inverse operation of multiplication. It is denoted by ‘÷’ or ‘/’.

Example: 12 divided by 4 equal to: 12÷4 = 3

Basic Geometrical Concepts

Although geometry is a higher concept in Mathematics, still few geometrical topics are taught to us in our primary classes to make us familiar with different shapes and sizes. There are many shapes in Maths, that help us to visualize objects and locations and other visual things in our day to day life. 

The basic shapes which we come across at the beginning of the geometrical concepts are Circle, Triangle, Square, Rectangle, Diamond, Cube, Cuboid, Cone, Cylinder and Sphere. These shapes are easily visible to us in our everyday life. Some examples are a ring, a ball, an icecream cone, gas cylinder, etc.

Maths is an interesting subject if we keep track of its basic concepts and fundamentals. Hence, it is necessary for students to have a thorough understanding of all the basic mathematics topics. 

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